Dec 26, 2016
A sea of sorrow. The world suffers an epic tragedy as a tsunami spreads death across Asia.
How the Deadly Waves Spread
The most powerful earthquake in 40 years quickly turned into one of the worst disasters in a century, as walls of water crashed ashore across South Asia
Scope Of The Tragedy
The death toll has surpassed 100,000 and will surely climb. Thousands are missing, and millions have been left homeless, threatened by diseases that are spread through dirty water, mosquitoes and over-crowding.
Tanzania. 10 dead.
Kenya. 1 dead.
Somalia. 200 dead.
Maldives. 73 dead.
India. 9,000 dead. Most deaths were in the southern province of Tamil Nadu. As many as 10,000 more are feared dead in the Andaman and Nicobar islands.
Bangladesh. 2 dead.
Burma. 90 dead.
Thailand. 5,000 dead. Thousands are missing from villages near such popular coastal resort areas as Phuket.
Malaysia. 66 dead.
Sri Lanka. 29,000 dead. Tsunamis lose their energy in shallow water. The ocean off Sri Lanka’s eastern coast is thousands of meters deep just a few kilometers from shore, so the tsunami hit with much more force than it did in Bangladesh, where the shallow water extends more than
160 km out to sea.
Indonesia. 80,000 dead. By far the highest death toll was on the remote northern end of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, which suffered the double shock of the quake and the earliest strike of the tsunami. Tens of thousands died in Meulaboh and the provincial capital, Banda Aceh.
7 hours. Approximate travel times of the tsunami after the initial earthquake.
Undersea ridges altered the course of the waves, redirecting N the tsunami's main strength '- toward Somalia.
Was it a tidal wave?
Tsunamis are not tidal waves because they are not influenced by the gravitational effect of the moon. But their appearance from shore can be similar to a rapidly rising or falling tide, and the severity of a tsunami can be affected by the level of the tide when the waves hit land.
What causes a tsunami?
A tsunami (a Japanese word that translates as “harbor wave”) is triggered by a vertical disturbance in the ocean, such as an earthquake, landslide or volcanic eruption.
1) The disaster was caused by a massive earthquake off the coast of Indonesia, where two plates of the earth’s crust grind against each other.
1,200 km of the plate
snapped, forcing a massive displacement
of water in the Indian Ocean.
3) The waves spread in all directions, moving as fast as
800 km/h. In the deep
ocean, the waves may be imperceptible, but they slow down and gain height as
they hit shallow water near shore.
The retreat of a tsunami from land can be quick—and just as dangerous as its approach. The waves often come in a series.
In deep water tsunamis are very long, hallow waves, which means they don’t lose much energy fighting gravity. Given enough initial force, they will travel vast distances until they are slowed by resistance from the sea floor near shore.
A Giant Jolt: The Indian plate usually moves northeast about
6 cm a year. Scientists estimate that in last
week’s quake, the two plates slid about 15 m at once.
Source: Time, special report Tsunami December 26, 2004, January 10, 2005.
Dec 24, 2016
Santa Claus challenge the crisis and like us tighten the belt
We knew it would happen, only, we’ll hope that does not happen so soon. The economic crisis has reached the North Pole of Santa Claus. You will not receive gifts this year. The IMU (council tax only) is only the spark of the disaster. It all started with the rise in food prices: Santa Claus had, like many of us, "tighten their belts", which had to her belly an effect equal to gastric banding. So he lost several pounds and decreased him blood pressure. He’ll live longer, but hardship. The increase in excises on magic fuel that sets in motion the magic sleigh, only aesthetically pulled by reindeer, prevents it use. The gasoline that costs more than solid polar milk is the reason of huge disadvantages.
Let us now turn to him employees, elves and goblins. Some of them ended up in layoffs; others took advantage of early retirement to avoid the heartbreaking experience to see the scenario of the end of a millenary tradition; others have had accidents at work: according to the input sheet to “glacialhospital” they have multiple and broken fractures caused by falls. In other words, have stumbled upon the ozone hole.
The melting of glaciers caused by global warming caused the loss of several thousand square miles of his laboratory with toys, wrapping paper and glittering ribbons now irrecoverable, lost in the Arctic Ocean. Strange to say, but this event isn’t a problem because the cadastral plan was not declared in accordance with the actual size of the laboratory. They are small construction scams scattered here and there around the globe.
Maybe this year should be sent, in a sealed envelope, a money order or a few bills that serves to restore the Arctic finances.
However you can still write him, indeed continue to do so. Continue to believe in the magic of Christmas. Support the tradition even as adults and with the same heat of when pushed to make those, albeit, small projects (decorations, little crafts, greeting cards, little films, elegant table), but full of faith, joy, enthusiasm, perspicacity.
Source: "La Gazzetta del Mezzogiorno", an italian newspaper, December 15, 2012, p. 28.
Dec 20, 2016
Dec 18, 2016
In the States there are only two official national holidays, Thanksgiving and Independence Day, apart from Christmas, New Year's Day and Easter. But like people all over the world, Americans love celebrations and holidays, and have many special days to mark events throughout the year.
Thanksgiving is a very old tradition and a very important date on the American calendar. It was first celebrated in October 1621 by the first British settlers, the Pilgrims, but today it is on the fourth Thursday of November. The Pilgrims gave thanks after their first winter in America. They celebrated with the Indians who helped them to live in the new land. Today it is a family feast celebrated with a huge dinner with traditional food — roast turkey, cranberry sauce, sweet potatoes, corn bread and pumpkin pie.
American Independence Day
American Independence Day is on 4 July, the day when the Declaration of Independence from Britain was signed. All Fourth of Julys are celebrated with parades, firework displays, bonfires, picnics, barbecues and parties.
Labor Day, when Americans celebrate all people working in the country, is on the first Monday in September. It usually means the end of summer. For children it is the end of holiday time and the beginning of a new school year.
Trick or treating
31 October is Hallowe'en, the night when witches, ghosts, demons and other scary things come out to haunt people. Children dress up in costumes and go Trick or Treating to each house in the neighbourhood. If the neighbours don't give them sweets, the children play a trick on them.
Opportunities to celebrate
The dates of birth of famous people offer another opportunity to celebrate.
Americans celebrate Martin Luther King’s birthday on the third Monday in January, and the birthdays of two great presidents, Abraham Lincoln and George Washington (the first president of the USA in 1789) on President's Day on the third Monday of February. Memorial Day on the last Monday in May remembers people who died at war, and Earth Day (22 April) reminds Americans to think about the environment.
Special days for different states
Some holidays are only celebrated in certain states: Louisiana has All Saints’ Day, while about 40 states celebrate Columbus Day.
Different states also have special days, weeks or months to honour particular people, events or food. For example, by tradition, Clown Week is celebrated in August, and Take Care of Your Pet Week is always the last week in September.
National Pizza Month is October, March is both National Hamburger and Pickle Month, and National Peanut Month, and August is National Sandwich Month. In fact, think of a food or a person or event and you’ll probably find someone in the USA will want to celebrate it!
Source: Excursion, an old Italian book.
Dec 16, 2016
Dec 14, 2016
In London on 1st January’s Eve, a lot of people go to Trafalgar Square and celebrate. People all over Britain have parties in their houses, too. The TV and radio stations have special allnight party music and broadcast Big Ben when it strikes twelve. When people hear it they drink a toast to the New Year. There is also a tradition called first-footing – a tall dark man must be the first person to come into the house after midnight. He must carry a piece of coal.
The British can be romantic! On 14th February they send romantic cards to people they like or love, Boys and girls also send cards to their parents. The cards are not signed and you must guess who sent them.
Who was Guy Fawkes? He and his friends put a bomb under the Houses of Parliament on 5th November 1605 and tried to kill the king. They failed, but people still celebrate this date with barbecues, fireworks and big bonfires. On top of the bonfires they put a man made of old clothes and newspapers — this is the ‘Guy’.
In March or April people have a public holiday to celebrate Easter. On the Sunday some people go to church, and most people spend the day with the family. People usually give presents of chocolate eggs, especially to children, and they can send greetings cards with pictures of eggs, rabbits and lambs, flowers etc.
25th December is Christmas Day, a traditional family day. British children believe that Father Christmas brings them presents. He comes down the chimney on the night of 24th December and puts his presents in a stocking. Children leave him cakes and a drink. All the family open their presents in the morning, then they eat Christmas dinner (roast turkey, roast potatoes and Christmas pudding) and Christmas crackers. At three o’clock in the afternoon the Queen reads her message on TV. Other traditions are Christmas cards, a Christmas tree, carol-singing (door-to-door singing of Christmas songs), and decorations.
Christmas Cracker: a cardboard tube wrapped in coloured paper containing a small present, a paper hat and a joke. Two people pull them apart, each holding one end and the tubes make an explosion as they break.
Fireworks: small colourful containers filled with an explosive chemical powder that burn or explode with bangs and coloured lights.
Bonfire: a large fire made in the open air to burn things.
Drink a toast: to hold up a glass before drinking in order to wish good luck or success.
Father Christmas: an old man with a red coat and a long white beard, also named Santa Claus. He is supposed to live Lapland or the North Pole where he spends most of the year in his workshop making toys for children. He files in the sky in a sleigh pulled by reindeer.
Source: Excursion, an old Italian book.
Dec 12, 2016
Dec 10, 2016
English people are very fond of sports and practise them much more than Italian people do. In English schools most after-noon lessons are devoted to games and sport activities. A boy who is good enough to play football in his school team is regarded by his fellows as a hero, and a Cambridge or Oxford undergraduate selected to be a member of his university crew in the Boat Race acquires life-long fame.
Cricket is the national game in England. It is played by 22 men dressed in white on a large green field. All true cricketers must be gentlemen: this is one of the main rules of the game. It is difficult to describe a game of cricket to foreigners because it has very complicated rules. A game may even last for a few days on end !
Rugby football, or rugger, is more popular in England than it is in Italy. It is considerably different from Association football, or soccer, because each rugger team has fifteen men instead of eleven, the ball is oval instead of round anal it can be played with both hands and feet.
Golf is the national game of Scotland. It is very popular among middle-aged people, and it is played with a number of clubs and a small ball that must be hit into the 18 little holes of the golf course.
Rowing is the best-liked sport at public schools and at universities. The Boat Race, the famous contest between the students of Oxford and Cambridge Universities, is rowed every year on the Thames. It is always watched from the river banks by thousands of fans wearing the colours of their favourite University: dark blue for Oxford and light blue for Cambridge.
Horse racing is also a great favourite among English people. The Derby, the annual race which takes place at Epsom Downs, is perhaps the world’s most famous sporting event and is almost invariably attended by a member of the Royal Family. Fox hunting is chiefly practised by the aristocracy and upper classes. The opponents of blood sports consider fox hunting cruel and barbarous; the defenders, on the other hand, advance strange theories: one is that the fox is a good sportsman and enjoys being hunted.
Source: R. Colle – I. Vay, L’esame di inglese, Lattes, an old Italian book 1974.
Dec 8, 2016
Dec 6, 2016
Society Of Professional Journalist
Code of Ethics
Members of the Society of Professional journalists believe that public enlightenment is the forerunner of justice and the foundation of democracy. The duty of the journalist is to further those ends by seeking truth and providing a fair and comprehensive account of events and issues. Conscientious journalists from all media and specialties strive to serve the public with thoroughness and honesty. Professional integrity is the cornerstone of a journalists credibility. Members of the Society share a dedication to ethical behaviour and adopt this code to declare the Society’s principles and standards of practice.
Seek Truth and Report It
Journalists should be honest, fair and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information.
► Test the accuracy of information from all sources and exercise care to avoid inadvertent error. Deliberate distortion is never permissible.
► Diligently seek out subjects of news stories to give them the opportunity to respond to allegations of wrongdoing.
► Identify sources whenever feasible. The public is entitled to as much information as possible on sources’ reliability.
► Always question sources’ motives before promising anonymity. Clarify conditions attached to any promise male in exchange for information. Keep promises.
► Make certain that headlines, news teases and promotional material, photos, video, audio, graphics, sound bites and quotations do not misrepresent. They should not oversimplify or highlight incidents out of context.
► Never distort the content of news photos or video. Image enhancement for technical clarity is always permissible. Label montages and photo illustrations.
► Avoid misleading re-enactments or staged news events. If re-enactment is necessary to tell a story, label it.
► Avoid undercover or other surreptitious methods of gathering information except when traditional open methods will not yield information vital to the public. Use of such methods should be explained as part of the story.
► Never plagiarize.
► Tell the story of the diversity and magnitude of the human experience boldly, even when it is unpopular to do so.
► Examine their own cultural values and avoid imposing those values on others.
► Avoid stereotyping by race, gender, age, religion, ethnicity, geography, sexual orientation, disability; physical appearance or social status.
► Support the open exchange of views, even views they find repugnant.
► Give voice to the voiceless; official and unofficial sources of information can be equally valid.
► Distinguish between advocacy and news reporting. Analysis and commentary should be labelled and not misrepresent fact or context.
► Distinguish news from advertising shun hybrids that blur the lines between the two.
► Recognize a special obligation to ensure that the public's business is conducted in the open and that government records are open to inspection.
Ethical journalists treat sources, subjects and colleagues as human beings deserving of respect.
► Show compassion for those who may be affected adversely by news coverage. Use special sensitivity when dealing with children and inexperienced sources or subjects.
► Be sensitive when seeking or using interviews or photographs of those affected by tragedy or grief.
► Recognize that gathering and reporting information may cause harm or discomfort. Pursuit of the nevus is not a license for arrogance.
► Recognize that private people have a greater right to control information about themselves than do public officials and others who seek power, influence or attention. Only an overriding public need can justify intrusion into anyone’s privacy.
► Show good taste. Avoid pandering to lurid curiosity.
► Be cautious about identifying juvenile suspects or victims of sex crimes.
► Balance a criminal suspect’s fair trial rights with the public’s right to be informed.
Journalists should be free of obligation to any interest other than the public’s right to know.
► Avoid conflicts of interest, real or perceived.
► Remain free of associations and activities that may compromise integrity or damage credibility.
► Refuse gifts, favours, fees, free travel and special treatment, and shun secondary employment, political involvement, public office and service in community organizations if they compromise journalistic integrity.
► Disclose unavoidable conflicts.
► Be vigilant and courageous about holding those with power accountable.
► Deny favoured treatment to advertisers and special interests and resist their pressure to influence news coverage.
► Be wary of sources offering information for favours or money; avoid bidding for news.
Journalists are accountable to their readers, listeners, viewers and each other.
► Clarify and explain news coverage and invite dialogue with the public over journalistic conduct.
► Encourage the public to voice grievances against the news media.
► Admit mistakes and correct them promptly.
► Expose unethical practices of journalists and the news media.
► Abide by the same high standards to which they hold others.
Sigma Delta Chi’s first Code of Ethics was borrowed from the American Society of Newspaper Editors in
1926. In 1973, Sigma Delta
Chi wrote its own code, which was revised in 1984 and 1987. The present version
of the Society of Professional Journalists’ Code of Ethics was adopted in
Dec 4, 2016
Dec 2, 2016
Be Honest and Fair
Bloggers should be honest and fair in gathering, reporting and interpreting information. Bloggers should:
• Never plagiarize.
• Identify and link to sources whenever feasible. The public is entitled to as much information as possible on sources’ reliability.
• Make certain that Weblog entries, quotations, headlines, photos and all other content do not misrepresent. They should not oversimplify or highlight incidents out of context.
• Never distort the content of photos without disclosing what has been changed. Image enhancement is only acceptable for for technical clarity. Label montages and photo illustrations.
• Never publish information they know is inaccurate – and if publishing questionable information, make it clear it’s in doubt.
• Distinguish between advocacy, commentary and factual information. Even advocacy writing and commentary should not misrepresent fact or context.
• Distinguish factual information and commentary from advertising and shun hybrids that blur the lines between the two.
Ethical bloggers treat sources and subjects as human beings deserving of respect. Bloggers should:
• Show compassion for those who may be affected adversely by Weblog content. Use special sensitivity when dealing with children and inexperienced sources or subjects.
• Be sensitive when seeking or using interviews or photographs of those affected by tragedy or grief.
• Recognize that gathering and reporting information may cause harm or discomfort. Pursuit of information is not a license for arrogance.
• Recognize that private people have a greater right to control information about themselves than do public officials and others who seek power, influence or attention. Only an overriding public need can justify intrusion into anyone’s privacy.
• Show good taste. Avoid pandering to lurid curiosity. Be cautious about identifying juvenile suspects, victims of sex crimes and criminal suspects before the formal filing of charges.
• Admit mistakes and correct them promptly.
• Explain each Weblog’s mission and invite dialogue with the public over its content and the bloggers’ conduct.
• Disclose conflicts of interest, affiliations, activities and personal agendas.
• Deny favored treatment to advertisers and special interests and resist their pressure to influence content. When exceptions are made, disclose them fully to readers.
• Be wary of sources offering information for favors. When accepting such information, disclose the favors.
• Expose unethical practices of other bloggers.
• Abide by the same high standards to which they hold others.