is a strategy to persuade people to do something (to buy a product, to use a
product, to elect a politician). In this sense it is a kind of magic.
analysts, advertising is a kind of magic. Raymond Williams in Problems in Materialism and Culture,
(UK: Verso, 1980) argues that it has the ability to ‘associate consumption with
human desires to which it has no real reference. The magic obscures the real
sources of general satisfaction because their discovery would involve radical
change in the whole common way of life’. Judith Williamson in Decoding Advertisements (UK: Marion
Boyars, 1978, 1998) shares a similar concern: ‘Advertisements obscure and avoid
the real issues of society, those relating to work, to jobs and wages and who
works for whom. The basic issues in the present state of society which do
concern money and how it is earned, are sublimated into ‘meanings’, ‘images’, ‘life-styles’,
to be bought with products not money’. Further the magic of advertising means
that we may believe commodities can convey messages about ourselves; this leads
to us being ‘alienated from ourselves, since we have allowed objects to “speak”
for us and have become identified with them’. Such alienation may well lead to
feelings of fragmentation and discomfort within the self, feelings which may
fuel a desire to seek solace in further consumption.
modes of advertising may be categorized as follows:
Commercial consumer advertising, with its target the mass audience and its Channel the mass media.
and technical advertising, such as ads in specialist magazines.
Prestige advertising, particularly that of big business and large institutions,
generally selling image and good name rather than specific products.
(4) Small ads,
directly informational, which are the bedrock support of local periodicals and
are the basis of the many giveaway papers which have been published in recent
advertising — health warnings, for example.
advertising, seeking donations for worthwhile causes at home and abroad.
Advertising through sponsorship, mainly of sports, leisure and the arts. This
indirect form of advertising has been a major development; its danger has been
to make recipients of sponsorship come to rely more and more heavily on
commercial support. Sponsors want quick publicity and prestige for their money
and their loyalties to recipients are very often short-term.
of Media and Communication Studies, fifth edition, James Watson and Anne Hill,
Arnold, A member of the Hodder Headline Group LONDON Co-published in the United
States of America by Oxford University Press Inc., New York.
Day is a national holiday celebrated in the United States on the fourth
Thursday of November and in Canada on the second Monday of October.
holiday has roots in cultural traditions. It’s a very old tradition and a very important
date on the American calendar. It was first celebrated in October 1621 by the
first British settlers, the Pilgrims, but today is on the fourth Thursday of
November. The Pilgrims gave thank after their first winter in America. They
celebrated (at Plymouth, in present day Massachusetts) with the Indians who
helped them to live in the new land.
a family feast celebrated with a spectacular parade and a huge dinner with traditional food: roast turkey,
cranberry sauce, sweet potatoes, corn bread and pumpkin pie.
beginning of the 1600s, a group of English Protestants lived in England under
the reign of King James. He was also the Head of the Church of England, but
these people wanted to separate from the Church of England. They were called Puritans
and they dressed in a very severe way, and had very strict rules.
disobeyed the king could be sent to jail, so the Puritans made their decision.
Pilgrims boarded a ship called the Mayflower
at Plymouth, in the south of England. They sailed for many weeks until they
reached America, far across the sea. It was a long and difficult journey – the people
were tired and sick when they arrived off the coast of Massachusetts, in
off the Mayflower by stepping onto a big rock which they called Plymouth Rock.
The people who met them when they arrived in the new land were Indians from the
a group of Indians stayed with the Pilgrims and showed them how to survive in
the wilderness. They taught them how to plant and cook maize, sweet potatoes
and pumpkins, how to catch wild turkeys and deer, and where to fish. They also
showed them how to shoot a bow and arrow to fertilize the soil with dead
later, thanks to the Indians, the Pilgrims had a good harvest. To celebrate it they
had a big party, which now is called Thanksgiving.
The new European, settlers and the American Indians were quite happy together
at first. But gradually life became very difficult for the Native Americans and
eventually they were forced to live on reservations. Only now are Americans
beginning to learn and respect Indian values again, and Indians are fighting
for their rights.
is an exciting place, but it’s dark and dangerous if you aren’t well-prepared.
Here are some guidelines to make your excursion safe.
strong, cotton clothes. You’ll get wet and need to change your clothes and wash
short sleeves or shorts. Wear a cotton hat. Wear strong boots, designed to dry
easily. Avoid open necks and keep your sleeves rolled down. Carry a pullover
for cool evenings.
Take a lot
of water in strong containers. Don’t drink any water without filtering and
purifying it first. You’ll need a well equipped first-aid kit. Wear insect
repellent bands on your wrist and ankles; and carry a mosquito net for
valuables on a string around your neck. A strong knife is very important for
cutting your way through the vegetation; but don’t carry your knife in your
hand when you’re not using it, keep it in your belt.
anti-malaria vaccination and take the prescribed medication. Don’t put on
clothes before checking them for insects and snakes! Move backwards if you get
trapped by vegetation. Don’t put insect repellent on your forehead as it will
get in your eyes. Don’t travel during the heat of the day. Look for a campsite
by 3 pm. If you can, sleep above the ground to protect you from animals, and
splashing rain. Don’t eat unfamiliar fruit and plants. Keep all cuts covered.
Eat well-balanced food. Drink a lot – jungle travel is dehydrating.
Basilica of Santa Croce in Florence, which they began to build in 1294
according to the plans of Arnolfo di Cambio, is the largest Franciscan church
in the world. It was constructed with funding from the population and the
Florentine Republic and built above the foundations of a small church which
some monks had erected outside the walls of the city in 1252, just a few years
after the death of Saint Francis.
of the original building weren’t identified until 1966, when, in the aftermath
of the great flood that submerged the city, part of the paving belonging to the
present Basilica gave way. From its beginning, the history of Santa Croce has
been closely linked to the history of Florence itself. Since its foundation, it
has been continually re-planned and re-designed throughout the course of those
seven centuries without suffering significant interruptions, and therefore
acquiring new symbolic connotations each time.
original Franciscan church it evolved to become a religious “town hall” for the
important families and corporations when Florence was ruled by the Medici
family. From being a craftsmen’s laboratory and workshop – first Humanist and
then Renaissance – it became a theological centre; and in the 19th
Century, it saw a change from being a pantheon of the nation’s glories to a
place of reference fro the political history of Italy before and after its
Florence, Santa Croce has always been a prestigious symbol and a gathering
place for some of the greatest artists, theologians, religious figures,
writers, humanists and politicians. It has similarly served the powerful
families that throughout the centuries have determined, both for good and bad,
the identity of Florence during the Late Medieval and Renaissance periods.
Within its walls, it has hosted many famous people in the history of the
church, such as Saint Bonaventure, Saint Antony of Padua, Saint Bernadino of
Siena, Saint Ludovico d’Angiò and the bishop of Tolosa. It was also a resting
and reception place for Pontiffs such as Sixtus IV, Eugene IV, Leo X and
impressive gothic architecture, marvellous frescoes, altar pieces, precious
stained-glass windows and numerous sculptures, the Basilica represents one of
the most important pages in the history of Florentine art from the thirteenth
Inside it houses works of art by Cimabue, Giotto, Filippo
Brunelleschi, Donatello, Giorgio Vasari, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Orcagna, Taddeo and
Agnolo Gaddi, Della Robbia, Giovanni da Milano, Bronzino, Michelozzo, Domenico
Veneziano, Maso di Banco, Giuliano da Sangallo, Benedetto da Maiano, Canova and
the presence of Giotto and his school of art makes Santa Croce and
extraordinary complete testimony of Fourteenth Century Florentine art.
historical and political upheavals that have accompanied Santa Croce right up
until today have always left a precise mark as much in the
artistic-architectural works (such as the radical transformations imposed by
Vasari around the middle of the sixteenth century; or the exuberant commitment
during the nineteenth century to transforming Santa Croce into a huge mausoleum
of Italian history), as in the testimonies guarded in its archives which hand
down to us a daily reconstruction, through the course of the centuries, of a
great project befitting its own creators, its own resources, its own objectives
has been defined as “the Pantheon of the nation’s glories” because within its
walls are the tombs of famous figures such as Niccolò Machiavelli, Galileo
Galilei, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Gioacchino Rossini, Giorgio Vasari, Lorenzo
Ghiberti, Vittorio Alfieri and Ugo Foscolo.
indisputable fascination that this place exerts, in an unequalled synthesis of
art, spiritually and history, is confirmed by the influx of around one million
visitors a year.
man? What is the purpose of life? Why does man have such a short time to live?
What are good and evil, and who can judge? What is love? What are the qualities
required of a king?
just some of the questions that the literature of the Renaissance was trying to
address. The climate of intellectual uncertainty which arose in this age is
partly due to a revival of interest in the philosophical ideas of the Greek
(427-347 BC). Plato’s idea of the nature of the world differed from that of Aristotle
who had been the dominant figure in medieval philosophy because his ideas were
more easily adapted to religious dogma. Plato's philosophy was also more open
In any case,
whatever its merits, the study of Plato represented another major theory of the
world. This in itself inevitably led to differences in opinion among the
educated classes and encouraged freedom of thought.
Plato and the cave
believed that our knowledge of the world came not through the senses but
through a type of reminiscence or memory of what he called ideas. Everything that existed in
nature corresponded to its idea of which it was an inferior but faithful copy.
To give a
contemporary example we could say that a Platonic idea could be compared to the
of a car from which countless identical examples are produced. We can say that
all of these cars participate in the idea but none of them embodies it fully.
There is not one car which we can say is the original.
described our sensory experience of the world as being similar to that of
people trapped in a cave who can only see the shadows of things and not the things
themselves in their essence. Plato says that the philosopher is he who
goes outside and sees things in direct sunlight. The sun is highly important for
Plato as it represents the source of truth.
it was vital to understand the essence of a thing, which the argued could only
be done through the intellect. By comparing the available examples of a
given object or idea we could discern
what elements were common to them all, which would give us a notion of the universalform.
Thus, beauty, for example, is judged by
Plato to be the perfect harmony of parts.
element in Plato’s idea of knowledge is judgement. We must be able to judge true essence
from false appearance. This is why Plato wishes to exclude artists from his ideal society
described in the Republic. Writers
are dangerous, because if words are separated from the person who speaks them
their meaning becomes ambiguous. Both art and music are dangerous because they
appeal to the emotions and sensorial experience. Regarding drama, Plato says
that a good man should not imitate an evil character. Like all art, acting
creates a world
of false appearances.
Thomson – Maglioni, Literary Links. Literature in time and space, Cideb, an old
Italian book 2000.
flag of 1777 had 13 stars and 13 stripes to represent the 13 States of the
United States flag the 13 white and red stripes represent the original States
of the Union; the 50 white stars on a blue background represent the States of
today. When a new State is admitted to the Union a star is added to the
Soccer (football) is Britain’s most popular team game.
There are about 129 professional clubs in Britain and the season lasts from
August to May. Football matches are usually on Saturday afternoons and the
highlight is the FA Cup Final at Wembley Stadium in London in May.
Rugby is also very popular and is played in two
versions: Rugby Union with fifteen amateur players per side, and Rugby League
with thirteen-a-side professional teams. The season starts in September and you
can watch matches every Saturday during the winter.
Cricket is often considered the English national sport
and is difficult to understanding. It is played with a bat and ball with two
teams of eleven players. A match can last up to five days. The season starts in
April and people love watching games on village greens and County grounds. The
main international competitors are: the West Indies, New Zealand, Pakistan,
Australia, South Africa and India.
Tennis is also a popular sport. The world's top
tennis players come to Wimbledon (in London) every year in the last week of
June and the first week of July for the Lawn Tennis Championships.
Motor-racing is very popular. Britain’s motor racing
championship for Formula One cars, is the British Grand Prix, held in July
every year at Silverstone racing circuit.
Golf is a very old game and St Andrews in Scotland
is the oldest Course in the world. The most important annual golf tournament in
Britain is the British Open Golf Championship. It takes place in July and is
for professional and amateur players, and is on a different course every year.
Rowing s a very popular sport and is about 500
different schools, colleges and rowing clubs Every year there are about 250
regattas in England — the most traditional is the 6.8 km long Oxford and
Cambridge University Boat Race held at the end of March on the River Thames in
London. Another AP important event is the Henley Royal Regatta in July.
Equestrian events can be seen all year round and many people
love ‘a day at the races’. The most famous events are the Derby (in June at
Epsom), the Grand National that takes place each spring (March or April) at
Aintree, and Ascot (June) famous for its hats! The main showjumping events are
the Royal International Horse Show in July, and the Horse of the Year Show in
October. Both are at Wembley, in London.